Question: Compare and contrast uniporter, symporter, and antiporter
proteins including the relative directi…


Compare and contrast uniporter, symporter, and antiporter
proteins including the relative direction of molecule movement and
any associated energetic needs. Which protein class would nicotinic
acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) be associated with?

In cardiac muscle, acetylcholine binds to muscarinic
acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs), which are G-protein coupled
receptors, which elicit a signal transduction pathway that induces
cardiac muscle to relax. Outline how G-protein coupled receptors
induce signal transduction pathways including relevant secondary
messengers.          
   

Interpret Dr. Peterson’s statement that active transport is
essential for facilitated diffusion of Na+ ions to occur in muscle
cells. How are Na+/K+ pumps involved in this process? Sketch a
Na+/K+ pump indicating conformational changes and energy usage
steps and identify ions that are moved during the cyclic
process.

Generally, after neurotransmitters are released in the
neuromuscular junction, many of the neurotransmitters or some of
their components are recycled by a reuptake mechanism inherent in
the pre-synaptic neuron. Considering that the reuptake mechanism is
often a sodium-dependent process that utilizes membrane potential,
what type of membrane transport might you expect to be in play
here?

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